August 8, 2020

How 5G Works- Learning About 5G In Detail

By editor1

The new revolution in the mobile networking industry i.e. 5G is now rolling out in several countries like the US, UK, Australia, and many others. We can see news about 5G across the whole internet. We have already discussed the basic information about 5G, 5G vs 4G speed, 5G latency, 5G bandwidth, 5G spectrum, 5G coverage, 5G frequency, etc. in our previous posts.  But today, we are going to discuss the working of 5G technology in detail, How 5G works? How a 5G network connect to 5G smartphones? How 5G networks work? and other related topics.

Nowadays, with the introduction of 5G (the fifth generation of cellular wireless), the internet is full of 5G related stuff. But, as more and more information is coming out about 5G, it is bit confusing for the audience to get the correct information. The primary question asked by the majority of the audience is how 5G Works. So, today we’ll throw some light on the working of 5G technology.

Working Of 5G

To understand, how 5G works, we have to understand the two basic components of a mobile 5G network i.e Radio Access Network and Core Network.

  • Radio Access Network (RAN): The basic work of RAN is to connect the mobile users as well as wireless devices to the core network by using facilities like
    • Small cells.
    • Towers.
    • Masts.
    • Dedicated in-building systems.
    • Home systems.

When 5G mmWave frequency is used, small cells play a vital role in providing continuous connection as small cells are distributed in the form of clusters based on where the connection is required by the user that assists the macro network in providing wide-area coverage.

Now comes the work of 5G macro cells that makes use of MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) 5G antennas to send as well as receive a large amount of data simultaneously. Through this, 5G benefits a greater number of users to maintain the continuous network connection. A large number of antenna elements are used by the MIMO 5G antennas and that’s why they are called Massive MIMO.

  • MIMO- Beam Steering: It is a new advanced technology that integrates with the massive MIMO antennas and assists in directing the radio signals directly to the 5G device instead of spreading it in all the directions. The technology makes use of an advanced signal processing algorithm that finds out the most suitable path for the radio signals to reach the destination. This results in an improvement in 5G efficiency as the unwanted radio signals are eliminated.
  • Core Network: It is where the management of voice calls, data, and internet connection of the mobile user is done. For better functioning of 5G, the redesigning of the core network is being done so that it can integrate properly with the internet as well as cloud-based services. Additionally, it also includes distributed servers which reduce the latency time.

The Combined Working Of 5G And 4G

The combined integration of 5G and the 4G connection is what makes continuous connectivity possible. When a device establishes its connection with 5G, then it is connected to both 4G and 5G networks. The 4G network assists in control signaling and the 5G connection delivers fast data connection by making improvement in the current 4G capacity. Whenever 5G coverage is limited, the continuous connectivity is provided by the 4G network.

What Makes Increased Capacity, More Users Connectivity, and Faster Speed Of 5G Possible?

At the initial stage, several countries are using a 5G frequency band below 6  a. At an advanced level, 5G spectrum above 6 GHz,  like 26-28 GHz bands, is used which is known as mmWave (millimeter wave) which results in the increase of capacity to a great extent. The increase in spectrum and capacity means more user connectivity, a large amount of data transmission, and faster speed. The only issue here is that the mmWave band covers only a shorter distance for which the use of small cells, macro cells, and dedicated in-building systems is done.  While using 5G network, network security is a necessity and that can be learned through Cyber News Box and My Cyber Pizza.

There are other features of 5G that are used for specific services:

  • Network Slicing: It is an essential feature useful for emergency services as this feature enables segmenting of the network for specific businesses, applications, services, or operations. Through this, one can operate on a different network slice separate from other users.
  • Network Function Virtualization (NVF): This feature help in real-time initiation of network functions at the specified location in the cloud platform of the operator. Through this feature, network functions can now be operated using software on a virtual machine that previously used to operate on dedicated hardware.

In the end, after knowing how 5G works, we can conclude that 5G has complimented the existing 4G network and has made high-end improvement in the mobile network ecosystem.